Incarnation: H.C. Question 35

What does it mean that he “was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the virgin Mary”?

John 1:1, 14 – In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God…

The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.

John 10:30-36 – I and the Father are one.”

Again his Jewish opponents picked up stones to stone him, but Jesus said to them, “I have shown you many good works from the Father. For which of these do you stone me?”

“We are not stoning you for any good work,” they replied, “but for blasphemy, because you, a mere man, claim to be God.”

Jesus answered them, “Is it not written in your Law, ‘I have said you are “gods”’? If he called them ‘gods,’ to whom the word of God came—and Scripture cannot be set aside— what about the one whom the Father set apart as his very own and sent into the world? Why then do you accuse me of blasphemy because I said, ‘I am God’s Son’?

Colossians 1:15-17 – The Son is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. For in him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things have been created through him and for him. He is before all things, and in him all things hold together.

1 John 5:20 – We know also that the Son of God has come and has given us understanding, so that we may know him who is true. And we are in him who is true by being in his Son Jesus Christ. He is the true God and eternal life.

Luke 1:35 – The angel answered, “The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God.

Matthew 1:18-23 – This is how the birth of Jesus the Messiah came about: His mother Mary was pledged to be married to Joseph, but before they came together, she was found to be pregnant through the Holy Spirit. Because Joseph her husband was faithful to the law, and yet did not want to expose her to public disgrace, he had in mind to divorce her quietly.

But after he had considered this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, “Joseph son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary home as your wife, because what is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. She will give birth to a son, and you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins.”

All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: “The virgin will conceive and give birth to a son, and they will call him Immanuel” (which means “God with us”).

Galatians 4:4 – But when the set time had fully come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under the law,

Hebrews 2:14 – Since the children have flesh and blood, he too shared in their humanity so that by his death he might break the power of him who holds the power of death—that is, the devil—

2 Samuel 7:12-16 – When your days are over and you rest with your ancestors, I will raise up your offspring to succeed you, your own flesh and blood, and I will establish his kingdom. He is the one who will build a house for my Name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. I will be his father, and he will be my son. When he does wrong, I will punish him with a rod wielded by men, with floggings inflicted by human hands. But my love will never be taken away from him, as I took it away from Saul, whom I removed from before you. Your house and your kingdom will endure forever before me; your throne will be established forever.’”

Psalm 132:11 – The Lord swore an oath to David, a sure oath he will not revoke: “One of your own descendants I will place on your throne.

Matthew 1:1 – This is the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah the son of David, the son of Abraham:

Romans 1:3 – regarding his Son, who as to his earthly life was a descendant of David,

Philippians 2:7 – rather, he made himself nothing by taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness.

Hebrews 2:17 – For this reason he had to be made like them, fully human in every way, in order that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in service to God, and that he might make atonement for the sins of the people.

Hebrews 4:15 – For we do not have a high priest who is unable to empathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who has been tempted in every way, just as we are—yet he did not sin.

Hebrews 7:26-27 – Such a high priest truly meets our need—one who is holy, blameless, pure, set apart from sinners, exalted above the heavens. Unlike the other high priests, he does not need to offer sacrifices day after day, first for his own sins, and then for the sins of the people. He sacrificed for their sins once for all when he offered himself.



Jesus the Son of God: H.C. Lord's Day 13

Q 33. Why is he called God’s “only begotten Son” when we also are God’s children?
A 33. Because Christ alone is the eternal, natural Son of God.  We, however, are adopted children of God—adopted by grace through Christ.

Q 34. Why do you call him “our Lord”?
A 34. Because—not with gold or silver, but with his precious blood— he has set us free from sin and from the tyranny of the devil, and has bought us, body and soul, to be his very own.

Sometimes when I am reading things I am presented with a question I didn’t even know existed.  Heidelberg Catechism question and answer 33 is like that.  In church, we talk at length about how we are called God’s Children and what that actually means for us and our identity.  We are adopted into God’s family, made co-heirs with Christ, and are prepared to receive all the benefits of being God’s children.  Sometimes we forget, though, that this title and identity is something that is given to us, not something we are necessarily born into.

Scripture is very clear about the position of our natural birth before God.  Ephesians 2:2-3 says, because of Adam’s Sin, we were by nature children of wrath and sons (and daughters) of disobedience.  Yet it follows that up by saying that “But because of his great love for us, God, who is rich in mercy, made us alive with Christ even when we were dead in transgressions—it is by grace you have been saved.  And God raised us up with Christ and seated us with him in the heavenly realms in Christ Jesus, in order that in the coming ages he might show the incomparable riches of his grace, expressed in his kindness to us in Christ Jesus.”  What amazing grace!

Jesus has always been the natural Son of God, begotten from all eternity, the very essence and image of God.  The Son didn’t become the Son all of the sudden when Jesus was born.  We, however, become children of God when we receive God’s adoption of us through faith in Jesus Christ by God’s grace alone.

The other subject that this particular week of the Heidelberg Catechism covers is the Lordship of Jesus Christ.  God’s Word is clear that God has laid everything at the feet of Christ, who is before all things and in whom all things hold together.  More than this, Colossians 1 talks about Jesus as being the creator of all things too.  Therefore, when Jesus sacrificed Himself for the redemption of all things, He was given Lordship over them by the Father.

What exactly does this mean?  Well, as Lord Jesus governs the whole universe and guards His people, protecting them against the schemes of the enemy.  It also means that He had rights over us.  Jesus, because of what He has done for us and the power He has given us, has the right to call us to live a transformed life.  In Scriptural language, this is called “dying to self.”  When we put our faith in Jesus we are claiming Him as our Lord which, incidentally, means that we are abdicating our own Lordship over our lives.

To be clear, Jesus wasn’t just arbitrarily given this position.  His Lordship is costly… very costly.  Jesus did gain this position through military rule, governmental overthrowing, or any other earthly method of power transfer, He gained it through His own death on the cross.  He bore God’s wrath and judgment, and through it He set us free from the tyranny of the devil.



Begotten: H.C. Question 33

Why is [Jesus] called God’s “only begotten Son” when we also are God’s children?

John 1:1-3 – In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made.

John 1:12, 14, 18 -Yet to all who did receive him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God—

The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth…

No one has ever seen God, but the one and only Son, who is himself God and is in closest relationship with the Father, has made him known.

Hebrews 1 – In the past, God spoke to our ancestors through the prophets at many times and in various ways, but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom also he made the universe. The Son is the radiance of God’s glory and the exact representation of his being, sustaining all things by his powerful word. After he had provided purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty in heaven. So he became as much superior to the angels as the name he has inherited is superior to theirs.

For to which of the angels did God ever say, “You are my Son; today I have become your Father”?

Or again, “I will be his Father, and he will be my Son”?

And again, when God brings his firstborn into the world, he says, “Let all God’s angels worship him.”

In speaking of the angels he says, “He makes his angels spirits, and his servants flames of fire.”

But about the Son he says, “Your throne, O God, will last for ever and ever; a scepter of justice will be the scepter of your kingdom.  You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has set you above your companions by anointing you with the oil of joy.”

He also says, “In the beginning, Lord, you laid the foundations of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands.  They will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment. You will roll them up like a robe; like a garment they will be changed.  But you remain the same, and your years will never end.”

To which of the angels did God ever say, “Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet”?

Are not all angels ministering spirits sent to serve those who will inherit salvation?

Romans 8:14-17 – For those who are led by the Spirit of God are the children of God. The Spirit you received does not make you slaves, so that you live in fear again; rather, the Spirit you received brought about your adoption to sonship. And by him we cry, “Abba, Father.” The Spirit himself testifies with our spirit that we are God’s children. Now if we are children, then we are heirs—heirs of God and co-heirs with Christ, if indeed we share in his sufferings in order that we may also share in his glory.

Ephesians 1:5-6 – he predestined us for adoption to sonship through Jesus Christ, in accordance with his pleasure and will— to the praise of his glorious grace, which he has freely given us in the One he loves.



Anointed: H.C. Question 31

Why is he called “Christ,” meaning “anointed”?

Luke 3:21-22 – When all the people were being baptized, Jesus was baptized too. And as he was praying, heaven was opened and the Holy Spirit descended on him in bodily form like a dove. And a voice came from heaven: “You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased.”

Luke 4:14-19 – Jesus returned to Galilee in the power of the Spirit, and news about him spread through the whole countryside. He was teaching in their synagogues, and everyone praised him.

He went to Nazareth, where he had been brought up, and on the Sabbath day he went into the synagogue, as was his custom. He stood up to read, and the scroll of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. Unrolling it, he found the place where it is written:

“The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to set the oppressed free, to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.”

Isaiah 61:1 – The Spirit of the Sovereign Lord is on me, because the Lord has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor.  He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim freedom for the captives and release from darkness for the prisoners,

Hebrews 1:9 – You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has set you above your companions by anointing you with the oil of joy.”

Psalm 45:7 – You love righteousness and hate wickedness; therefore God, your God, has set you above your companions by anointing you with the oil of joy.

Acts 3:22 – For Moses said, ‘The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your own people; you must listen to everything he tells you.

Deuteronomy 18:15 – The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your fellow Israelites. You must listen to him.

John 1:18 – No one has ever seen God, but the one and only Son, who is himself God and is in closest relationship with the Father, has made him known.

John 15:15 – I no longer call you servants, because a servant does not know his master’s business. Instead, I have called you friends, for everything that I learned from my Father I have made known to you.

Hebrews 7:17 – For it is declared: “You are a priest forever, in the order of Melchizedek.”

Psalm 110:4 – The Lord has sworn and will not change his mind: “You are a priest forever, in the order of Melchizedek.”

Hebrews 9:12, 24 – He did not enter by means of the blood of goats and calves; but he entered the Most Holy Place once for all by his own blood, thus obtaining eternal redemption…

For Christ did not enter a sanctuary made with human hands that was only a copy of the true one; he entered heaven itself, now to appear for us in God’s presence.

Hebrews 10:11-14 – Day after day every priest stands and performs his religious duties; again and again he offers the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins. But when this priest had offered for all time one sacrifice for sins, he sat down at the right hand of God, and since that time he waits for his enemies to be made his footstool. For by one sacrifice he has made perfect forever those who are being made holy.

Romans 8:34 – Who then is the one who condemns? No one. Christ Jesus who died—more than that, who was raised to life—is at the right hand of God and is also interceding for us.

Matthew 21:5 – “Say to Daughter Zion, ‘See, your king comes to you, gentle and riding on a donkey, and on a colt, the foal of a donkey.’”

Zechariah 9:9 – Rejoice greatly, Daughter Zion!  Shout, Daughter Jerusalem!  See, your king comes to you, righteous and victorious, lowly and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey.

Matthew 28:18-20 – Then Jesus came to them and said, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.”

John 10:28 – I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish; no one will snatch them out of my hand.

Revelation 12:10-11 – Then I heard a loud voice in heaven say:  “Now have come the salvation and the power and the kingdom of our God, and the authority of his Messiah.  For the accuser of our brothers and sisters, who accuses them before our God day and night, has been hurled down.  They triumphed over him by the blood of the Lamb and by the word of their testimony; they did not love their lives so much as to shrink from death.



Hebrews 1:1-4; John 1:1-5; Colossians 1:15-20 "Who is Jesus?"



John 12 – Coronation

Read John 12

The first major section of the book of John, the “Book of Signs,” comes to a close with several aspects of the coronation of Jesus Christ as King.  John uses these events and discussions to both draw from Jewish history and to foreshadow what is about to take place.

In Israel’s history, whenever a someone was chosen by God to be king, that person would be ceremonially anointed with oil.  Remember back to the stories of Saul and then David, both anointed by Samuel after God chose them to be Israel’s King.  Here Jesus is anointed by Mary which, when linked to the triumphal entry narrative, sees Jesus as Israel’s saving king.

It must have been quite a moment for Jesus’ disciples as they saw Him riding into Jerusalem with the throngs of people crowding around Him and praising Him.  We again get the sense of a king’s return to the city of David.  They even shout Scripture, fulfilling it as He rides by.

But it isn’t until later in this chapter when Jesus directs their attention to the true coronation event that is to take place, one that no one expects.

Until now, Jesus has been saying that His “hour” had not yet come.  Yet in this moment, as Jesus enters Jerusalem, a pivotal transition is taking place.  The anointed Son of God had now come and the hour of His glorification is at hand.  His coronation, however, would not be filled with the expected pomp and circumstance typically given to a King.  There would be crowds, a parade, a crowning, and a final “lifting up” that would take place, all as the Lamb of God takes on the deepest nature of a servant, lovingly giving His life so that others may truly find theirs once again.