Introduction to the Letters of John

Though the Apostle John is widely believed to be and accepted as the author of the author of the letters in the Bible that bear his name, he is never directly identified in them as Paul and Peter are in their letters.  This has, in the past, led to speculation about who it was that actually wrote these letters.  Both second and third John begin by identifying the author as “the elder” while first John doesn’t even take the form of the letter.

The question of authorship throughout the Bible is an academic and intellectual argument that, while of secondary importance, does not change the nature of the book or its purpose, function, or place within God’s Word.  We believe that, as Scripture was canonized (the process by which books of Scripture were chosen to be in what we know as the Bible), the Holy Spirit was active in working in the lives and decisions that were made, regardless of who actually authored the book.  God’s truth, revealed in the Words of the Bible, does not depend on who wrote it, and the veracity (truthfulness) of Scripture is not at stake because of this either.  In fact, it was a rather common practice for those who learned from, studied under, and followed leaders to write in their name during, and especially after their lives.

There is plenty of “internal evidence” to support the authorship of the Apostle John here as well.  These three letters contain a great deal of similar language to that of the Gospel of John.  When we look at a number of the themes that are covered, even how John opens His first letter beginning with the incarnation like He does in His Gospel, it is pretty clear that if the Apostle John didn’t write it, someone, who followed Him closely and learned from him, definitely did.



Numbers 33 & Deuteronomy 4-11 – Leaving Egypt – Home: End or Beginning?

1. How has this journey shaped your understanding of freedom in the Christian life? How is God calling you to a new sense of freedom in your own life?

2. Moses warns that the influence of Egypt can continue to be strong in our lives, that living in a way contrary to full freedom and identity that God offers us is like Egypt in our lives. Have you experienced this? Is God calling you out of some form of Egypt in your life today?

3. How do Christians typically define the “Promised Land,” the happy or virtuous life? How does the Church often define this?

4. Do we treat Christianity as an end unto itself or does faith become the catalyst for a greater mission? Are we willing to settle for the comfort of our church pews or do we live into our call as “the light of the world?”

5. Read Matthew 5:3-12. What do the Beatitudes invite you to in your own life? How does this relate to our Exodus journey? How might living into this new reality change the way you relate, the way you play, the way you work, and more?

6. In what ways have we as a church settled for comfort and familiarity rather than being the “light of the world”? How can we step out of our comfort zone and further live into the identity that God has given to us?

7. In what ways is HCRC being a light? What can we do to continue to foster these things and even create new opportunities for flourishing and growth in this community?
*Some questions taken from Leaving Egypt, by Chuck DeGroat



2 Peter 3 – Slowness

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When we look around at the world and see so much of the awful things that are going on, we often echo the words of Scripture, “How long oh Lord?”  Our liturgies include in them a bid for Jesus to come back soon and even our worship music emphasizes this at times.  The truth is that we long for Jesus’ return so that all things in this world will be put right once again.

Christians in the days of the early church longed for this as well.  In fact, most figured that Jesus would be back in their lifetime.  However, when that did not come to pass, and especially as the great persecution broke out against the church, people began to wonder when the time would be that Jesus would come back.

This is not necessarily a bad thing to wonder about.  It does, however, create some “fertile soil” for the seeds of doubt to grow, especially if those scoffers that Peter talks about here were to come and try to grow their seeds with scoffing and questions.

Peter, in his desire to feed God’s sheep, does a lot here to put things into perspective.  We are really only capable of thinking in terms of our own lives or known history at best.  This reveals our finite ability to understand both time as we know it and God’s time (and timing).  God stands outside of time, holding the whole of eternity in His hands and so, it is understandable that God’s work and will may also be outside the scope of our vision and understanding.

God’s original promise to Abraham took somewhere between 1500 and 2000 years to come true in Jesus, but it did come true.  In the same way, Jesus’ promise to return and God’s promise to complete His redemptive work, bringing all things under Christ and making everything right, destroying wickedness and evil forever, will come true in God’s perfect time.

Why the delay?  Well, who is to say that there is a delay?  It feels like that for us but for God, it’s right on time.  More than this, though, we see in God’s timing a true act of love and mercy, desiring that none would perish but that as many people as possible would come to know His love and mercy.

This is a very deep perspective that we need to keep as we think about Jesus’ coming.  Though we long for that “great and terrible” day, we also need to remember that each day we are here, each day that Jesus does not return is another day for us to spread God’s love and grace so that none would perish.



2 Peter 2 – Wallowing in the Mud

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Peter warns of false teachers, those who were among the church and those on the outside that were spreading heresy, false teachings among the community of faith.  Paul also warned of this when he wrote, urging the people to hold onto what they had learned in the truth of the Gospel.

False teaching was very prevalent in their time.  A number of different versions of Christian teaching were being put forth in churches throughout the Roman Empire.  Sometimes, I would guess, it was hard for them to decipher truth from falsehood.

Today’s church has this same problem.  There are a number of different groups that are at work within the church trying to use the Gospel message for their own personal gain.  It is easy for us to spot the more obvious heresies and false teachings.  Other religions and those who blatantly deny Christ are Lord and Savior are obvious.  We must be careful about the less obvious ones; they are much more dangerous becuase they are insidious, creeping gradually into our faith and belief structure.

So if these false beliefs are dangerous and sneeky, the obvious question that Peter adresses here is “who do we recognize them?”  First and foremost, we must always be checking what people say against Scripture itself.  If teachings fall contrary to what the whole of Scripture reveals to be true, then it is wrong.  The other way that Peter talks about here is by looking at the conduct of the teacher.  He speaks to these false teachers as being depraved, seeking to exploit, greedy, and arrogant.

Peter concludes this chapter by speaking a humorous and yet all to real truth with regards to false teachers; “a dog returns to its vomit.”  When it comes to false teachings, there is one thing that will always be a clue: when push comes to shove, false teaching always returns to the strength of the argument or some human experience, not on fundamental truths that we find in Scripture.



2 Peter 1 – All We Need

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As Peter opens his second letter, he spends a great deal of time emphasizing the identity of the recipients.  He reminds us that our identity is secure in Christ and that God has given to us everything that we need to live into this reality of our lives.  This was likely a needed reminder for those he was writing to considering the hard times that they were dealing with.  It is a necessary reminder for us all that time as well, considering the pressures and competing worldviews that culture throws at us every day.

Peter encourages believers, in the midst of the spiritual battle that we are in, to strengthen our faith and our witness through adding a number of things to our lives.  Each of these, goodness, knowledge, self-control, perseverance, godliness, mutual affection, and love, are elements of the life of faith that we are called to live.  Each are attributes of God, parts of His character that are revealed through Christ Jesus.

Like everything that we talk about when it comes to faith, Peter is not talking about a sort of “works righteousness” way of living, but rather a deepening of the faith that we have which will in turn cause us to live in a greater way into the calling that we have received as children of God and heirs to His promises.

Why does Scripture continually come back to this?  Peter points out here that, even though his readers are firmly established in the truth, he wants always to remind them of these things.  This is an important aspect of what why we read Scripture and worship together as Christians.  In this world, where so many different things trying to suck us into their own identity, we need to be reminded constantly of who we are and whose we are.  So often we forget in one fashion or another, straying all over the place.  For this reason, we remain committed to Scripture and to prayer, seeking God and listening for the Spirit’s voice to remind us and direct us each day.



1 Peter 5 – Leadership

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Leadership is a pretty hot topic these days and those who work to coach and help leaders are doing great work to equip and empower leaders to lead well.  Peter has a number of things to say to the leaders of the church as well as they continue to lead in tumultuous times.  What I think is important to notice about what Peter says here, though, is not that he has given them some great strategy to lead, but rather than he has encouraged them to follow Christ’s example by imitating Him.

There has been a lot done in the last 20 years in the church to create strategies for leadership and development, for ministries and programs that will work to attract more people and grow the church.  The “seeker service” movement along with “contemporary” worship music and coffee bars in the church have all been ways that churches have sought to attract people or be “relevant.”

Now, I’m not at all opposed to good coffee, and I doubt Peter would have been either, but the much of what has been done in the church over these last two decades has completely missed the point of the church.  We aren’t supposed to be building internal programs that bring people in, we’re supposed to be following the example of Christ.  Jesus didn’t set up a church building and then require people to come, Jesus went out to minister among the sick, the poor, the sinners, and the outcasts.

Now, that’s not to say that there isn’t something important about the Church or about the local community of faith.  Indeed there are many benefits to meeting together, of being together, and of worshipping together.  However, if those things become an end unto themselves, we have completely missed the purpose of the church.  If leaders in the church simply work to facilitate the function of the organization so that we can continue to keep our doors open, we’re failing at what we’re supposed to be doing.

Peter’s words call us to imitate the “Chief Shepherd” so that we can show the world who Christ is.  We do this by showing Christ’s love and following His example, ministering among and with the least, the last, and the lost.



1 Peter 4 – Surprise?

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Peter is writing in a time of great persecution, but even in this, he tells his readers to “not be surprised” at the suffering that they are facing.  In fact, other parts of Scripture tell us that, because we are following Christ, we can expect persecution and suffering.  However, Peter wants to make a qualification here, clarifying the both why we suffer persecution as Christians and for what reason.

Part of suffering and persecution as Christians is participating in Christ’s sufferings.  Jesus said that the world would hate His followers because it hated Him first.  That said, Peter also wants the reader to make sure and understand that our sufferings, the persecution that we face, perhaps even the backlash from the world that we face, is happening to us because of the fact that we are Christ followers… not for other reasons.

This, I think, is an important distinction to make.  Christians today are often seen complaining about this and that, things that are going on in the government and in our culture that are counter to what we believe to be morally right or Scripturally sound.  Yet, when it comes down to it, not a lot of those things really “oppress” or “persecute” us.

What Peter is referring to here is the physical attacks that were happening to the Christian community during that time.  The government and many other people were working to limit the spread of the Gospel through the persecution of the church.  Peter makes sure to point out that it is for the Gospel that we should be suffering, not other reasons in our lives.

Nowadays, there is a number of ideological, cultural, and even personal things that we can stand up for and for which we could receive backlash.  All of those, however, pale in comparison to the “honor” and “joy” we have to suffer for the Gospel.

Do you think that the church in North America “suffers” for the Gospel?  Does society see the Gospel message as such a threat to us that they try to put us down and keep us under wraps?  Or are they just going about their business, tuning out our complaints, not worried that we’re really going to make that much of a difference?



Numbers 14, 20, 21 – Leaving Egypt: "Wilderness Work"

1. How does God use the wilderness time to reform and reshape His people? In what ways does their old identity need to be purged for them to move forward? How do you relate to this in your life?
a. How has HCRC experienced this in recent years?

2. What needs to be purged from your life to better enable you to trust God and live in dependence on him?

3. The “cruciform life” is the life that follows the path of Jesus, being crucified with Him, buried with Him, and raised to new life with Him. How do you react to the idea of the “U” representing the path of our lives?
a. How well would you say that you live into this in your own life? In what ways could you embrace it more?
b. How well would you say that HCRC lives into this in the life of the church? In what ways could we embrace it more?

4. Describe the tension in your own life of living in the way of the wilderness versus living to avoid it. Does the way of the wilderness mean intentionally choosing suffering? How?

5. How does God draw near to those who suffer? What is your own experience of this?

“Let me learn by paradox that the way down is the way up, that to be low is to be high, that the broken heart is the healed heart, that the contrite spirit is the rejoicing spirit, that the repenting soul is the victorious soul, that to have nothing is to possess all, that to bear the cross is to wear the crown, that to give is to receive, that the valley is the place of vision.” – A Puritan Prayer

6. How does the Puritan prayer that we prayed in church, seen above here, represent your life? How does it challenge you?

*Some questions taken from Leaving Egypt, by Chuck DeGroat



1 Peter 3 – Eager

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I don’t wish to ignore a portion of today’s reading, but we have talked about the language that is used here, the language of submission, in other portions of our walk through the New Testament.  It is important to note here that, on top of using this “submission” language, which we have said could be replaced with the word “value,” and should always be read with the idea that husbands and wives are called to mutual submission in the same way that they submit to Christ, here Peter takes it a step further to talk about the potential benefits and outcomes of acting in this way.  Our spouses could be won over, coming to know Christ, because of our actions!  As always, it is important to say here that this is not an encouragement to stay in abusive or dangerous relationships.  I do not believe that Scripture ever meant for that to happen and that those who twist Scripture for their own defense in this matter are wrong.

Aside from, but related to that is the following topic on “doing good.”  Peter encourages his readers once again to continue to do good in the midst of whatever suffering that they might encounter.  He even goes so far as to suggest that we should be “eager” to do good.

As I continue to think about the election this week and the results that have come from it, I wonder about what we are “eager” to do.  It seems like a lot of us are eager to get into meaningless arguments on social media, publically injuring our own witness and that of the church through unfriendly, unloving, and divisive speech.  It seems that we are eager to judge our friends and neighbors for their political affiliations and reactions to the events of late.  It seems that we are much more readily willing to allow the things of this world dissuade us the hope that we have in Jesus Christ.



1 Peter 2 – "Living Godly Lives in a Pagan Society"

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Could there be any more appropriate words to greet us two days after the election?  In the face of an over-abundance of persecution, Peter reminds his fellow believers that, while God is the ultimate authority, we are also called to submit to human authorities and to respect both our leaders and each other.

…in this election cycle, we have failed at this…

You know, there has been a profound outcry from some in the Christian community against Donald Trump because of his “foolishness.”  Indeed, the Donald, in his candidacy, fit the Biblical description of a fool almost too perfectly.

There has also been an outcry from others in the Christian community against Hillary Clinton.  Scripture has a lot to say about someone who is greedy, corrupt, and a has been caught in his/her own lies.

So what does Peter tell us to do in response to this?  Should we be bashing each other?  Should we be calling for love in ways that are divisive?  Should we commit to opposing the next government administration because it doesn’t fit our own preferences or ideology?  No.  Peter writes,

Submit yourselves for the Lord’s sake to every human authority:whether to the emperor, as the supreme authority, or to governors, who are sent by him to punish those who do wrong and to commend those who do right.  For it is God’s will that by doing good you should silence the ignorant talk of foolish people. Live as free people, but do not use your freedom as a cover-up for evil; live as God’s slaves.  Show proper respect to everyone, love the family of believers, fear God, honor the emperor.

At the time of this writing, the emperor was trying to kill Christians; and Peter calls them to honor him.  I wonder if there is an application for us here?

The fact of the matter is this, there is no authority here on earth that is not subordinate to God’s authority.  That does not necessarily mean that those governments will follow the will of God though, and Peter’s words for those situations are also clear: “By doing good you should silence the ignorant talk of foolish people.”

Friends, no government is going to save us, our religion, or our nation.  It is Christians living into their faith, loving our neighbors, our brothers and sisters, loving God, and living into the mission that we are called to as the Church of Jesus Christ.



1 Peter 1 – Living Hope

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Peter opens his letter with a customary thanksgiving statement that praises God for all that He has done and continues to do in the lives of His people.  As he does this, he references the hope that we have, a “living hope” that is in Jesus Christ.  This, for Peter, is the foundation for all that is to come, for our whole lives as those who are “in Christ,” who have been “given new birth.”

This is an important place to start for Him, given all that is going on in the context of this writing.  Peter, along with the whole Church in the Roman Empire, has been facing dramatic persecution, the likes, and duration of which they had not yet seen since Jesus was taken into heaven.

In the face of this, where people were having to worship in secret, hide their identities, and were likely watchings friends and neighbors arrested and even put to death, Peter encourages them in the same way that Paul does: “Hold on to your faith.”  Peter reminds the of the Gospel, of the true hope that is found in Jesus Christ and the nature of that hope as well.  There is nothing that humans can do to take that away from them.  No matter how bad it gets, God is greater.  Even death cannot put an end to this hope.

With all of us waking up “post-election” today, whatever the results are (I’m writing this having just voted), and wondering like the rest of the U.S. what the results are going to be tomorrow when this is being read.  There is a lot of opportunity for fear, doubt, and disbelief.  I’m sure there was back then as well.  But Peter’s words here, and all throughout Scripture reminds us that our true hope does not lie in things in this world and that nothing in this world can take the true hope, the hope that lives eternally in us through Jesus Christ.



Introduction to the Letters of Peter

At the end of the Gospel of John, we encounter the narrative of Peter’s reinstatement after denying Jesus three times.  In it, Jesus repeated tells Peter to “feed my sheep.”  Throughout the book of Acts and at different points in Paul’s letters, we encounter Peter as an “apostle to the Jews,” focusing on teaching and proclaiming the message of Jesus to the Jewish people.

Later in life, however, Peter seems to have taken on a greater role within the church, writing not only to Jews here, but to the Gentile churches throughout Asia Minor (modern day Turkey), the same churches that Paul wrote to as well.

Peter’s writing come in roughly the mid-60s AD.  He was in Rome, probably after Paul died, and stayed there until His own Martyrdom sometime before AD 68.

All throughout His writings, Peter works to feed Christ’s sheep in a time when such “food” was scarce.  There was a great deal of persecution during this time.  Peter mentions it in every chapter of his first letter.  He encourages them to remain faithful to the Gospel and to persevere in the midst of their suffering.

In His second letter, Peter feeds Christ’s sheep by instructing them on how to deal with persecution, evildoers, and false teachers from within the church.  Both letters reveal Peter’s true “shepherding heart” for believers and for the church.  He continually encourages and challenges believers toward faithful living in the midst of many trials.



James 5 – Warnings and Prayers

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It is no secret in Scripture that God has a special place in His heart for the oppressed and marginalized.  Much of the mission of the Church is based on a call to care for the widow, the orphan, those in prison, and the oppressed and much of the early church was made up of such people.  The makeup of churches nowadays seems to have changed a bit.  Church appears to be a place where those who have their lives all together go, not where the broken come to receive healing.

James issues a warning to those who are “rich,” but it goes for all those who oppress or ignore the oppressed and marginalized.  Our actions in this regard do not go unnoticed before the thrown of God.  We must be careful in how we act and in where our priorities lie for it is not our earthly wealth that matters to God, but what we did with the blessings, actions that reveal where our heart is, that He has given us that truly matters.

One of the ways we can ensure a proper orientation in our lives in this, and all matters that James brings up, is committing to prayer.  We don’t talk about this enough, I think, in the church.  When we come before God, we come to praise Him, to thank Him, and to lift up our needs and the needs of the world before Him.  We do this because God calls us to, because He is capable of handling our needs, and because we trust Him.  Doing so, however, does not exempt us from action either.  God calls us to be active participants in His work in the world and this happens through the prayers and actions of His people.  When we invite God into situations, we believe that He is going to act in ways the build His Kingdom and further His will in the world.



James 4 – Internal Desires

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Practical Theology, which is one of the main themes of the book of James, doesn’t simply have to do with what we do outwardly as we live out our faith.  Though that is a big component of it, James has already pointed to the fact that what happens outside of us, our actions, come from what is happening inside of us.

Here, he draws on that theme, even more, when he points out that much of the fighting, quarreling, and division that is present in our lives comes from the internal desires that we have not being fulfilled.

Now, some of these desires might be good things and are worth standing up for.  But what James is referring to here is actually the negative things, the things we covet or want.  We may get these things confused for those things that we need, forgetting that God always provides for the things that we need.  When we lose our perspective like this, the little things seem to be way more important than they actually are and we make a big deal out of them, fighting and quarreling about things that are really non-issues.

How do we overcome this?  James tells us to submit ourselves to God and resist these temptations.  When we do this, the devil will flee from us.  He makes it sound so simple…

However, the reality of what James is saying here brings us back to the very core of our identity in Christ.  We are those who are unable to save ourselves, unable to free ourselves, and unable to provide for ourselves; WE NEED GOD.  James calls us to a life of daily dependence on God for our protection and provision.

While future planning is not necessarily a bad thing, as Christians we are called to do it through the lens of daily dependence.  We do not do things under our own power, but because of God’s provision and blessing in our lives.  This is the essence of practical theology too, that our lives would daily reflect our full dependence on God alone.



Numbers 13-14 – Leaving Egypt: Facing the Giants

  1. As you consider your own journey, how do you relate to the spies who feared when they saw the giants in the land? Who are your giants?  How are you the “grasshopper”?
  1. When faced with a big decision, a direction change, or a new undertaking, fear makes the allure of Eqypt becomes even more enticing. In what ways does Israel look backward rather than forward, standing on the brink of the promised land?  Have you experienced that in your life?
    1. Have we experienced this in the life of HCRC?
  1. “Israel rejects God not because they want to be more but because they are willing to settle for less.” -Dr. David Stubbs  Have you ever experienced a time in your life where you have settled for something rather than embracing the great things that God has in store for you?  What is it that caused you to make that decision?
  1. God calls Israel His “treasured possession”, “loved”, and “chosen people”. He uses these same terms when He refers to His people now.  Yet like Israel, we stumble and struggle because a despairing sense of inadequacy and self-depreciation.  Do you experience these lies in your own life?  What truths in Scripture can you find to replace those lies in your life?
  1. The first vision we get of Canaan, the promised land, before all of the fear and rejection, is one of abundant flourishing and provision beyond anything that the people could have expected, a testimony to God keeping His promises. Have you experienced this in your own life?  Do you see places in your life where this is the current reality?  Are there places where you are on the cusp of this?  What steps of faith is God calling you to take to get there?
    1. Consider the life of HCRC. How do these questions apply?

*Some questions taken from Leaving Egypt, by Chuck DeGroat